THE DISPERSION OF GREEK EDUCATION 51 era was the most brilliant. During this period, which coincided roughly with the Third Century B.C., the influence of the Aris- totelian and Platonic schools was still strong on the scientific side, and showed itself in the splendid work done by Euclid in geometry, by Archimedes in physics, by Hero and Philo in dynamics, by Apollonius in conic sections, by Eratosthenes in geography (among many other things), and by Hipparchus in astronomy. The same analytical interest appeared also in the erudite study of the great Greek writers by Xenodotus and Eratosthenes, the iirst two keepers of the great library, and by a number of other bibliographers, In the second period, which ended with the expulsion of the (5 reek scholars from Alexandria by Ptolemy IX. some time after his accession in 146 B.C., the scientific studies had largely ceased and literary criticism was supreme. The great names of the nge are those of two of the most distinguished scholars of antiquity, Aristophanes and Arist- archus, the third and fourth keepers of the library* Unlike the scholars of the preceding century, who were both poets and scholars, they were scholars pure and simple, and spent their lives in a minute study of Homer and the other Greek poets. Aristarehus, whose commentaries occupied eight hundred vol- umes, is of special note in the history of education for his work in the establishment of grammatical science. The beginnings of grammar arc to he found in I'lato and Aristotle and in the Stoics of the Third Century, but it was not till Aristarchus had distin- guished eight parts of speech- -noun (including the adjective), verb, participle* pronoun, article, adverb, preposition, and con- junction that grammar assumed the form which, with some modifications, it has retained in the studies of the ordinary school ever since, Concerning the third period, there is little to be said. The compulsory departure of the Greeks, about 146 B,CM enriched other countries with scholarly teachers, but left Alexandria so poor that for more than a century after there is scarcely a name of any note in her annals* In the absence of the Greeks, the Jews, who had been a prominent element in the academic group from the beginning, became still more important: a fact of con- siderable consequence for the later development of the Alexan- drian school in the Christian era.